Category Archives: education

Smart Grids & Cleanpower 2016 Cambridge 27-28 June

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The Most Exciting & Informative Executive Business Meeting on Smart Grids & Cleanpower in 2016 – Just 2 weeks to Go!

You can claim a 15% discount to attend, online by selecting the concessions box and quoting “CIRBlog”

Dear Colleagues,

On 27-28 June 2016, over 100 global business leaders, policy makers, entrepreneurs, academics and the media will converge on Cambridge for 7th Smart Grids & Cleanpower IIoT Conference. This 7th annual event will deal with current examples of smart grids projects around the world and will focus on what lies ahead, covering innovations that will smooth the way towards energy storage at large scale and distributed and for smart grids of various types.

We have brought more than 25 speakers, known for their expertise in mainstream, emerging & transformative innovation areas of energy and utilities around smart grids, energy storage, energy mix & security.

We hope to see you there,
Maya Stancheva, Justin Hayward & Nicholas Coutts
Cambridge Investment Research
40 High Quality Conference Days since 2002

The 7th Cambridge Smart Grids & Cleanpower IIoT Conference 2016
www.cir-strategy.com

Conference Delivery – Cambridge Investment Research
Sponsors – Sentec Sensus & UtilityWise
Government participants – DECC, Ofgem, National Grid, NPL
Associate Sponsors – Argand Solutions, Smartest Energy, AMT Sybex
Media Partners & Outlets – Pan European Networks, Horizon 2020 Projects, CIR, Eco-Business, Conference Alerts, Cambridge Wireless, Cambridge Network

Information

Monday – Tuesday June 27-28th, 2016, Wordsworth Executive Conference Centre, Robinson College, Adams Rd, Cambridge, CB3 9AN

Recommended conference accommodation: at venue (lower cost) – Hilton Doubletree (4* historic town centre) or Cambridge City Hotel

More information »

 

 

 

 

 

The below are example past and present participants in this series since 2009!

 

footer-tail-sponsors

 

Who should attend Cambridge Graphene Days 2015? 5-6 November

Booking online | Info | Why attend? Please call Maya on +44 1223 303500 for help booking and service.

Top 12 Reasons

1 Anyone with an interest in traction of business involving Graphene and GRMs

2 Anyone wishing to understand barriers to adoption and use of Graphene & GRMs

3 Anyone on a science and technology watching brief for Graphene and GRMs

4 Anyone with a startup or entrepreneurial idea for Graphene or GRMs

5 Anyone with business problems to solve that might be influenced or helped by Graphene or GRMs

6 Those wishing to understand the full uptodate and prioritised range of applications and those nearer to and further from market

7 Anyone wanting to get an IPR landscape & investment level update for Graphene and GRMs

8 Anyone wanting to meet new industrial and business entrants into the Graphene and GRM areas

9 People wanting to build quality networks or ecosystems in this set of fields

10 Sector specific players seeking to access solution providers

11 Solutions providers seeking to understand customer pull in a range of sectors

12 Those in related areas of technology such as nanotech, IoT, cleantech who wish to see the potential and synergies with Graphene and GRMs

Booking online | Info | Why attend? Please call Maya on +44 1223 303500 for help booking and service.

FlexEnable named Co-Lead Sponsor of Cambridge Graphene Days 2015

FLEXENABLE Ltd, a leader in development and industrialisation of flexible organic electronics, has announced its decision to co-sponsor the Cambridge Graphene Days 2015 (5-6 November).

The greatest graphene and GRM business event in the world in 2015.

“Perhaps the greatest graphene and GRM business event in the world in 2015.”

The Cambridge Graphene Days 2015 is a prime festival of events over two days for networking and learning more about the latest advances in commercialising Graphene and related materials  in sectors such as electronics, displays, energy storage, composites, packaging, aerospace & defence and automotive. The special set of events includes a program of events to be held mainly in Cambridge’s newly opened Graphene Building, with an exhibition of technology and tours of labs as well as a media event, conference and dinner at King’s College. Uniquely, leaders will discuss in a structured masterclass, the value network for graphene and GRMs and how barriers to adoption and use can be removed with services and networks.

Chuck Milligan, CEO, FlexEnable commented ”The relevance of graphene and graphene-like materials to flexible electronics for displays and sensors is clear, and we are proud to be co-sponsors of the Cambridge Graphene Days event – and the opening of the Graphene Building in Cambridge. We believe that our unique manufacturing processes for flexible electronics, together with the exponential growth expected in the flexible display and IoT sensor markets,  provide enormous opportunity for this exciting class of materials.”

Professor Andrea Ferrari added “We are very much looking forward to our Cambridge Graphene Technology Day on the 5th of November, when we will showcase industrial applications of graphene and related materials. We are also excited to be hosting high value manufacturing-oriented meetings on the site of the Cambridge Graphene Centre”.
For further information on development and industrialisation of flexible organic electronics please visit www.flexenable.com. To learn more about the Cambridge Graphene Days 2015 please visit http://www.hvm-uk.com/graphene2015

With over a decade of experience, IP development and technology awards, FlexEnable works together with customers to drive innovation across flexible sensors, smart systems and video-rate displays. FlexEnable‘s proven technology platform enables new mobile products, wearables, surface displays and imaging systems.

Cambridge Graphene Days event-set, available as a package via CIR here below, include:

a. MASTERCLASS – this includes media event and dinner at King’s College & is CPD Certified (day 1)

b. MEDIA EVENT & TOURS of LABS  – with Cambridge University “CEO” & Vice Chancellor, Professor Leszek Borysiewicz FRS FRCP (day 1)

c. EXHIBITIONS of real graphene and GRM technologies (both days)

d. 3rd CIR GRAPHENE BUSINESS CONFERENCE – (day 2) Chaired by Professor Andrea Ferrari, Head, Cambridge Graphene Centre, Chair, Graphene Flagship – Fantastic Panel & Speaker Lineup.

Haydale plc are confirmed Lead Sponsors of #CGD15. All takes place in the BRAND NEW CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY GRAPHENE BUILDING with lab tours available throughout the two days of events.

Book now!

Top 10 Reasons to Attend Cambridge Graphene Days 2015 | MasterClass, Press Event & Business Conference | Tours of New Labs | Expo of Tech – 5-6 November

Home | Bookings

For pricing see further down the page. Please email Maya mstancheva@cir-strategy.com for a detailed brochure or booking or call +44 1223 303500.

1. There is a top level master class on 5 November for corporate executives led by a world-class coach & assisted by subject-matter industry experts.

2. Followed by a media event with the Vice Chancellor of Cambridge University and then an exclusive private roundtable dinner at

3. the beautiful, ancient King’s College, Cambridge University. 

4. Topics for the entire masterclass and business conference are market-led,

5. which means that past delegates have requested them and

6. CIR is asking all speakers to choose one of the topics rather than taking the shotgun “call for papers” approach with them,

7. So that uniquely to date, buyers (corporates & brand owners) will be there with tech suppliers

8. At the showcase throughout day, the business conference on 6 November all day at the New Cambridge Graphene Centre Building

9. 12-16 talks throughout the day updating you on topics you wanted

10. CIR has run high quality events since 2002, always listening and learning, increasingly market-demand led.

There will be a focus on strategic use-case value-proposition development, innovation & strategic products such as sensors & devices, electronics, consumer goods, industrial products.

Pricing

(5 Nov) Exclusive invite-only master class day with fine private dinner at King’s: £895 pv (Max attendees 24) (Corporate or C-level Execs are invited)

(First Conference ever at New Cambridge Graphene Building) Business conference day with showcase:  £245 pv (concessions). £295 pv (standard value price). Concessions: (under 4 staff tech suppliers, f-t academics, f-t investors,  not consultants or public sector).  (Max attendees 200)

Price for both days is the the sum of the above prices, £1,140 for pass to all events including King’s dinner.

We (CIR Team Justin, Jacqueline, Maya & Nick and supporters Cambridge Graphene Centre and Media Partners Nanopro, Graphene Tracker, Graphene Info, Pan European Networks, Horizon2020, IOM3.org, BREC, AzoNano, KTN and Graphene SIG very much look forward to greeting you at this unique market developing & accelerating event.

http://www.hvm-uk.com/graphene2015

Please email Maya mstancheva@cir-strategy.com for a detailed brochure or booking or call +44 1223 303500.

 

Graphene: what is the reality?

The HVM Conference Series was founded in 2002, after a market research report led to an early definition of high value manufacturing.

The HVM & Graphene Conference is anchored to the large end markets such as materials, electronics, photonics, energy and biotech and tries to connect these & related markets with graphenes & related functional materials, technologies & processes.

The HVM Conference will run an edition on Graphene (HVMG13) and related functional materials on 5 November 2013 in Cambridge. The Nobel Prize has been awarded in 2010 to Geim and Novoselov for work on Graphene. The conference is interested in commercial applications of the materials. There is no interest at this long-running & grounded UK conference series in hyping the market growth derived from the materials. The interest is in the uses, availability, manufacture, timing of graphene, related materials and their market growth. The wide range of potential applications below of graphene fits well with the range of processes & end-product markets that the HVM Conference has covered over the years, such as additive manufacture & printed electronics.

This conference of the brightest, best and most experienced will take on board the below, and ask & discuss the full suite of commercialisation & opportunity prioritisation questions. The conference is sponsored by the NanoKTN, Plastic Logic & OSI Electronics. There is also participation from Cambridge University, the IfM, Cambridge Graphene Centre, the National Graphene Institute, Manchester University, Oxford University, Birmingham University, Lancaster University, Imperial College, Cambridge Graphene Platform, Cambridge Nanosystems, Applied Nanolayers, CIT, Novalia, KPMG, Heraeus Noblelight, and a number of key commercial, larger players such as Nokia Research.

Here are some of the statements and comments made by academics at a selection of learned institutions in recent years:

Graphene is a sheet of carbon atoms arrayed in a honeycomb pattern, just a single atom thick. It could be a better semiconductor than silicon.
Stanford

 

Graphene is a material with outstanding properties that make it an excellent candidate for advanced applications in future electronics and photonics.

…graphene field-effect transistors, FETs, and …graphene monolithically integrated circuits (ICs). These graphene transistors and ICs could become essential elements in the blossoming fields of wireless communications, sensing, and imaging.

…impressive photonic properties of graphene. The light–graphene interaction can be adjusted using an electric field or chemical dopant, making graphene-based photonic devices tunable. (Applications such as)…fast photodetectors, optical modulators, far-infrared filters, polarizers, and electromagnetic wave shields. These graphene photonic devices could find various applications in optical communications, infrared imaging, and national security.

IBM Watson Research Center

 

Graphene is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Graphene can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than that of copper…record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases, and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility.

Manchester

 

Recent discoveries have provided simple methods for preparing lab-scale samples to study graphene. A number of techniques have emerged that show promise for producing large-scale samples with the ultimate goal of developing devices that take advantage of graphene’s unusual properties. As large samples become available, the possibility grows for applications of this material in solar cell technology (as flexible, transparent electrodes), in composites material development, and in electronic devices.

Columbia

 

…those properties (of graphene/graphene oxides) can be exploited in several applications such as photo-catalysts (degradation of pollutants)…

Nokia Research

 

(We study) thermal transport properties of graphene…applications of controlling heat at nanoscale.

The thermal conductivity can be tuned dramatically by the graphene filler concentration.

Graphene-based composites are potentially promising as thermal interface materials (for) modern heat management in many industrial applications.

Purdue

 

The HVM Graphene 2013 Conference is co-located with the ARM sponsored Smart Homes & Cleanpower 2013 Conference, in its 8th year, which takes in Heat, Water and Connected devices/IoT Sessions for an excellent set of crossovers around energy, heat, storage, electronics, and data. Delegates of  one conference may move freely between both conference rooms for a rich, inspiring and productive experience on the day.

To attend HVM Graphene 2013, simply email (graphene@hvm-uk.com) with your name, affiliation & contact details, and the organisers will do the necessary (pricing is on the webpage linked above).

This blog entry was researched and compiled by Dr Justin Hayward MBA and Conference Director.

Smart Grids & Cleanpower: an overview of 5 June 2013

Dear colleague

SGCP 2013 is an exciting one-day conference expo in two streams for corporates, investors and entrepreneurs building businesses in the connected intelligence for grids and power sector. The conference is in its 5th year. We want to inform, inspire and connect the people and companies building & securing the smart grid and enabling safer cleaner lower-cost power generation.

Why attend SGCP – what this conference expo gives you

The double-stream conference brings together brands implementing connected intelligence and the disruptive tech companies supplying them to discuss smart grids “The Grid of Things” and transition energy security.

The Lead Sponsor is ARM. Speakers include ARM, Energy Saving Trust, Cyan Technology, BPAE, Anglian Water, National Grid, National Nuclear Lab, National Physical Lab, UK Power Networks, S&C tbc, Trilliant, ETI, DECC, Ofgem, Intellisense, Moixa Energy and AlertMe (see web for longer list andagenda).

Some who will be there: Cambridge University, Imperial College, Marshall Group, Anglian Water, Hitachi Europe Future Cities, Energy Saving Trust, NPL, TTP Ventures, Dawe Media, Fault Current Ltd, Maosco Ltd, Multos, Isentropic Ltd, AlertMe Ltd, Polysolar Ltd, Cambridge Carbon Capture Ltd, Green Tide Ltd, JKPM Ltd, Energence Ltd, Metric Digital, EDW Tech Ltd, Cyan Technology Ltd, Shirlaws, Trillion Fund, UKTI East, Alconbury Enterprise, Autodesk, Trilliant, S & C Electric, BPVA, KISS Comms Ltd, Quench Power Ltd, Venner Shipley LLP, Cambridge Design Partnership Ltd, The Guardian Newspaper, UK Power Networks, BP plc,National Grid, Ofgem, Intellisense, Buro Happold, Durham University, Electralink, NNL, Ofgem, Sainsbury’s plc, DECC, ETI, Solar Century plc, Renesola, Emblem Ventures, UKERC, Oxford University, Moixa Energy, Adapt Commercial Ltd, Poyry, Mansion Partners, Xsilon Ltd, PassivSystems, Nanoforce Ltd, Gazprom, Qatar Developments, greenBRIDGE, New Laws Legal, EDF Energy, Clean Capital Advisors, Low Carbon KEEP Programme, CreativeZones, FusionIP, Sentec, Cambashi.

Media Partners include Business Weekly, Cleantech Investor Magazine, Clean Capital Network, Connected Clusters, Cleantech Business News and Smart Grids Careers: a lot of publicity!

Using probably the best & most comfortable venue in Cambridge, we offer many hours of pleasant, great networking with a lunch as well as structured and unstructured sessions and Q&A throughout the day.

Interested in exhibiting?

There is still some space for showing off what you do in the conference networking hours including lunch so please do get in touch.

Rising stars in grids and power

A key part of the programme is showcasing with innovation pitches, hosted this year by experienced investor Clennell Collingwood of TTP Ventures, the best of the innovators that are making the connected intelligence, grid technology & power generation deployment. Companies with the greatest market potential will meet customers, investors and press. If you have a successful or new business in grids and power, take an expo showcase space here (only 2 spots remain).

You can find out more and register here (http://www.cir-strategy.com/events/register) for SGCP13 and/or HVM & iWATER November on the info webpage here.

By calling 01223 303500 to book and telling us that you heard about this through Cleantech Investor Magazine, we will give you a 20% discount from the exec and investor rates.

Justin Hayward

CIR Conferences in Cleantech and HVM

http://www.cir-strategy.com/events/cleanpower

Buy Tickets (http://www.cir-strategy.com/events/register)

Mobile: 44 7720 047 402

Email: justin@cantab.net

CIR Conferences on Twitter: @HVMConference

Skype: jhayward

LinkedIn: http://uk.linkedin.com/in/haywardcir

Slideshare: Past conference talks

More info about future events – speaking, sponsorship & registration

Conferences upcoming (call 01223 303500 to plan a great marketing programme):

Smart Grids & Cleanpower, 5 June, Cambridge

HVM Graphene Disruptive, 5 November, Cambridge

iWATER & iHEAT, 5 November, Cambridge

National Competencies & CIR Conferences 2013

The competencies of UK industry as identified by the top institute for manufacturing in the UK, the IfM, are covered by the conferences in HVM and Cleantech in 2013.

CIR is offering a passport for the year, which costs £520 and will enable access to 4 all-day high-quality conferences throughout the year, beginning with Smart Grids & Cleanpower on June 5 and going on to a water-based general Cleantech Conference iWATER & HVM Disruptive on November 5. The typical cost to attend a single conference is £325, and conferences of this type are attended for around £900/day in certain quarters in London, so that this year pass is great value.

In particular, energy generation, management and storage are covered at Smart Grids and Cleanpower, with the themes “Grid of Things” and “Transition Technologies” respectively.

Along with iWATER and HEAT & SHIFT later in the year on 5 November, these cleantech conferences cover business and market growth and the issues of scarcity of energy and other resources.

The second broad category competence mentioned by the IfM is that of competitiveness, efficiency and effective manufacturing systems. This broad area is covered on November 5 at HVM Disruptive – a follow-up to the successful 10th Anniversary HVM Conference in 2012. In particular, the role of government in industry is considered. But the main focus will be on disruptive technologies.

Sectors to be covered across the HVM conference are:

  • materials: composites and coatings (inks, adhesives etc)
  • nanoelectronics, photonics, devices, sensors,
  • energy & storage – as we saw
  • biotech applications

More agile methods, such as 3D/additive printing will be covered on November 5 in connection with the new material graphene. These along with the experience economy represent a whole paradigm shift for sustained growth in Western economies.

The whole area of “Smart” through “embedded, connected intelligence everywhere” is covered in the cleantech events on smart grids (June 5), industrial (clean)power generation (June 5), water tech for smart homes and factories (Nov 5).

Building new business models to realise superior value networks is a core competence of CIR Strategy, which organises this year’s series of HVM and cleantech conferences in the Golden Triangle of Cambridge, London and Oxford.

CIR espouses the understanding of value networks rather than supply chains and is expert in advising on these and in designing conferences to bring together the relevant stakeholders in a value network. The rigorous method behind much of this is called “Routes to Value”.

CIR believes that there is excellent growth to be obtained in Western, mature economies that are faltering and growing much more slowly than developing markets. This additional growth and value can be added through service design so that customers can buy and use products and services more easily, and in a more engaging way. This leads to the more developed experience economy. A series of experience services can be called a transformation. Transforming your clients is a goal that all businesses in the UK should be looking to achieve. Doing so would engender the kind of growth that we have seen elsewhere in the world over the last 10-20 years and make a great number of lives in the West and elsewhere better.

Therefore, all five strategic themes within the IfM report for the TSB in 2012 are covered by the HVM and Cleantech Conferences by CIR in 2013. A passport for just £520 can be obtained for executives seeking to go on this journey in 2013, building knowledge, connections and doing business.

CIR very much looks forward to seeing you at the conferences on June 5 and November 5, 2013.

You can sign up for a 2013 HVM and Cleantech passport up to 31 March 2013 by calling us at 01223 303500 or emailing events@cir-strategy.com. Or you can book directly for a specific conference here (buy tickets).

 

 

High Value Manufacturing Conference 10th Anniversary: Highlights of a memorable day

Conference homepage | Organiser Homepage | HVM10th Speaker Biographies | HVM10th legacy page

The feedback from senior delegates at the HVM Conference on 14 November was very positive, praising the quality of speakers, networking, business development value, and briefing content.

Summary of HVM 10th Anniversary Conference

The day began with a short talk from HVM strategy consultant and organiser Dr Justin Hayward in which he noted that Britain was on top of the world when it came to countries with over 10 Olympic Gold-medal per million inhabitants scores. This has been effected through lottery-funding, a form of funding that is effective and voluntary.

Justin also argued the points that government spending in the UK has been rising since World War II to a level well over 40% of GDP, and that this may be resulting in difficulties with releasing the potential of HVM from the UK.

Justin went on to note that the private sector has been becoming more confident in difficult times as it struggles to enable earlier-stage HVMs to find funding and grow without government intervention or bank or financial VC finance, instead working with angels, angel groups, superangels, corporate investors, large channel customers and crowdfunding while adapting business models so as to reduce the level of funding needed before testing the market.

Professor Sir Mike Gregory CBE, Head, IfM opened the conference as chairman that “manufacturing was back in fashion”. Sir Mike was upbeat in his appraisal of developments around HVM by the private sector in partnership with the government through the seven centres of the HVM catapult, which cover half of the 22 British competences listed in Sir Mike’s IfM report for the TSB in 2012.

After Sir Mike the audience enjoyed hearing from Will Barton, TSB Head of Manufacturing, details of the success story of Oxford Catalysts, going from an idea around Fischer Tropfe processes for production of clean energy and difficulties to a globally operating company in eight years.

Following this, Phil O’Donovan, a well-known entrepreneur and co-founder of CSR plc, discussed the fabless manufacturing business model and how this enables companies to scale yet keep on top of design and required in-house expertise as returns were to be dealt with by CSR rather than the manufacturer. Phil also said that tax for SMEs should be simple, founder-friendly, staff-friendly and stable, a comment which received nods of approval from many. He noted that the high growth “CSR ignored government and eventually they ignored CSR plc too”. CSR plc quickly went to over 1000 staff and became the market leader in bluetooth with a USD1 billion plus market valuation.

Sir Robin Saxby was next up, in a fantastic opening session. Sir Robin showed the now-famous “SWOT” analysis slide of the ARM business in 1990, at which point it consisted just of the 11 engineer founders and Sir Robin. Given ARM’s dominance now, the SWOT’s contents are an obvious source of great humour! But the point was made strongly that startups should take such analyses seriously. He discussed how SMEs can learn from larger customers’ needs. Startups, he asserted, should try to hire the best team and advisors as soon as possible and motivate themselves through share options in the company. Sir Robin finished by talking briefly about some of the technology startups he has invested in.

Plastic Logic, one of the headline sponsors of the 10th Anniversary HVM Conference, were represented by their new CEO Indro Mukerjee. Indro talked about the industrial revolution that is 3D printing, and noted that Plastic Logic was moving out of stealth mode.

Tonejet, another headline sponsor, spoke through CEO Ray Southam of their successes in bringing from invention to market the world’s first full colour photographic-quality digital can printer, with all the implications this has for the market for promotional cans.

Later in the day there were further keynote talks from an array of speakers, including 2012 Medicine Nobel Prize winner, Sir John Gurdon, who spoke of his “blue sky research” leading to reversible cells and of his educational experiences which to his teacher seemed unpromising to say the least! The audience was spellbound by this talk.

Nick Coutts of CIR Strategy, organiser and sponsor, gave a world-class discussion of Routes to Value, as applied to HVM, which he has pioneered.

Dick Elsy, the new CEO of the HVM Catapult talked about the seven centres across the UK and of government and private sector funding, and how these centres are enhancing advanced manufacturing through engagement with SMEs.

Sir Michael Marshall returned to the HVM conference with an interesting talk covering HVM Successes in Cambridge, and of how his family’s business has grown from a humble chaffeur startup in 1909 to a billion pound plus company in aerospace, automotive, specialist vehicles and owning the airport.

A very strong final panel consisted of Lord Sainsbury of Turville, Sir Michael Marshall, Dick Elsy, Nick Coutts and Professor Sir Mike Gregory CBE. Quite a group! The discussion will be summarised by CIR Strategy at the legacy website and announced first to delegates attending.

The upshot of the panel was a general positivity about what High Value Manufacturing is achieving in Britain and what the future holds for an efficient, well-supported competitive economy with mutilple key advantages in manufacturing.

Please keep an eye on www.hvm-uk.com for further news, reports and conferences on HVM.

Conference homepage | Organiser Homepage | HVM10th Speaker Biographies | HVM10th legacy page

A Century of UK Government Spending

Charts:

UK Total Government Spending 1910 – 2012 – Percentage of GDP

UK Total Government Spending 1910 – 2012 – in 2012 Pounds Sterling and scaled up for population increase to 2012 levels.

UK Government Spending on Welfare/”Benefits” 1910 – 2012 – Percentage of GDP

UK Government Spending on Welfare/”Benefits” 1910 – 2012 – in 2012 Pounds Sterling and scaled up for population increase to 2012 levels.

UK Government Spending on Education 1910 – 2012 – Percentage of GDP

UK Government Spending on Education 1910 – 2012 – in 2012 Pounds Sterling and scaled up for population increase to 2012 levels.

UK Government Spending on State Protection (Police, Fire, Courts etc) 1910 – 2012 – Percentage of GDP

UK Government Spending on (Police, Fire, Courts etc) 1910 – 2012 – in 2012 Pounds Sterling and scaled up for population increase to 2012 levels.

UK Government Spending on Defence 1910 – 2012 – Percentage of GDP

 

Example:

UK – Breakdown of Government Spending

1910

Pensions = 0%
Healthcare = 0.4%
Education = 2.3%
Welfare = 1.0%
Defence = 2.9%
Safety (police etc) = 0.5%
Transport (trains, roads etc) = 2.7%

Total Government Spending 1910 = 15% of GDP

2013

Pensions = 8.5%
Healthcare = 7.7%
Education = 5.9%
Welfare = 7.2%
Defence = 2.8%
Safety = 1.9%
Transport = 1.1%
Interest on Debts = 2.7%
“Accounting adjustments” = 1.5%

Total Government Spending 2013 = 42% of GDP

Source: http://www.ukpublicspending.co.uk

Analysis of data: CIR Strategy.